Seagrasses are coastal angiosperms that cover vast areas from tropical to near-polar regions. Seagrasses stabilize sediments, filter land-derived nutrients, sequester carbon, attenuate wave energy and provide habitat for plants and animals (1). Globally, seagrasses are threatened by sediment and nutrient runoff, invasive species, algal blooms, global warming, diseases, overgrazing, physical disturbances, and aquaculture (1, 2). Degradation of seagrass beds reflects a loss of ecosystems services (3). Molecular analysis suggest that a single seagrass species exist in New Zealand (4). This species has previously been referred to as Z. muelleri, Z. capricorni, Z. novazelandica, and Z. mucronata. The first name has priority and is therefore recommended (5). Zostera muelleri is found in low-energy soft-bottom estuaries and lagoons throughout New Zealand, primarily between mid and low tidal levels. In clear water systems Z. muelleri can survive to 5 m depth (6). In many places Z. muelleri can also occupy intertidal rocky reefs (7, 8). Many of the global threats to seagrass beds are likely to have decimated seagrass beds in New Zealand (9, 10). I have collated a bibliography of Z. muelleri, based on the 4 synonyms. If you know of papers or reports about the ecology of Zostera muelleri that is missing from the list, I would greatly appreciate the reference.

Bibliography of studies over Zostera muelleri in NZ

Reference number: (4-7, 9-34)

Bibliography of studies over Zostera muelleri in Australia

Reference number: (35-45)

  • 1. Orth R, et al. (2006) A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. BioScience 56:987–996. 2. Waycott M, et al. (2009) Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:12377-12381. 3. Costanza R, et al. (1997) The value of the worlds ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260. 4. Les DH, Moody ML, Jacobs SWL, & Bayer RJ (2002) Systematics of seagrasses (Zosteraceae) in Australia and New Zealand. Systematic Botany 27(3):468-484. 5. Jacobs SWL, Les DH, & Moody ML (2006) New combinations in Australasian Zostera (Zosteraceae). Telopea 11:127-128. 6. Schwarz A, Morrison M, Hawes I, & Halliday J (2006) Physical and biological characteristics of a rare marine habitat: sub-tidal seagrass beds of offshore islands. NIWA, Science for Conservation, New Zealand 269:39. 7. Ramage DL & Schiel DR (1998) Reproduction in the seagrass Zostera novazelandica on intertidal platforms in southern New Zealand. Marine Biology 130(3):479-489. 8. Ramage DL & Schiel DR (1999) Patch dynamics and response to disturbance of the seagrass Zostera novazelandica on intertidal platforms in southern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 189:275-288. 9. Inglis G (2003) Seagrasses of New Zealand. In: Green, E.P.; Short, F.T. (eds). World atlas of seagrasses: present status and future conservation. University of California Press, Berkeley:148–157. 10. Turner SJ & Schwarz A (2006) Management and conservation of seagrass in New Zealand: an introduction. NIWA, Science for Conservation, New Zealand 264:90. 11. Kohlmeier D, Pilditch C, Bornman J, & Bischof K (2014) Site specific differences in morphometry and photophysiology in intertidal Zostera muelleri meadows. Aquatic Botany. 12. Dos Santos VM, Matheson FE, Pilditch CA, & Elger A (2013) Seagrass resilience to waterfowl grazing in a temperate estuary: A multi-site experimental study. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 446(0):194-201. 13. Dos Santos VM, Matheson FE, Pilditch CA, & Elger A (2012) Is black swan grazing a threat to seagrass? Indications from an observational study in New Zealand. Aquatic Botany 100(0):41-50. 14. Matheson FE, Lundquist CJ, Gemmill CEC, & Pilditch CA (2011) New Zealand seagrass – More threatened than IUCN review indicates Biological Conservation. 15. Leduc D & Probert PK (2011) Small-scale effect of intertidal seagrass (Zostera muelleri) on meiofaunal abundance, biomass, and community structure. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 16. Battley PF, Melville DS, Schuckard R, & Ballance PF (2011) Zostera muelleri as a structuring agent of benthic communities in a large intertidal sandflat in New Zealand. Journal of Sea Research:19-27. 17. Mills VS & Berkenbusch K (2009) Seagrass (Zostera muelleri) patch size and spatial location influence infaunal macroinvertebrate assemblages. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 81(1):123-129. 18. Leduc D, Probert PK, & Duncan A (2009) A multi-method approach for identifying meiofaunal trophic connections. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 383:95-111. 19. Jones TC, Gemmill CEC, & Pilditch CA (2008) Genetic variability of New Zealand seagrass (Zostera muelleri) assessed at multiple spatial scales. Aquatic Botany 88(1):39-46. 20. Turner SJ (2007) Growth and productivity of intertidal Zostera capricorni in New Zealand estuaries. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41(1):77-90. 21. Matheson FE & Schwarz AM (2007) Growth responses of Zostera capricorni to estuarine sediment conditions. Aquatic Botany 87(4):299-306. 22. Berkenbusch K & Rowden AA (2007) An examination of the spatial and temporal generality of the influence of ecosystem engineers on the composition of associated assemblages Aquatic Ecology 41:129-147. 23. Turner SJ & Schwarz AM (2006) Biomass development and photosynthetic potential of intertidal Zostera capricorni in New Zealand estuaries. Aquatic Botany 85(1):53-64. 24. Leduc D, Probert PK, Frew RD, & Hurd CL (2006) Macroinvertebrate diet in intertidal seagrass and sandflat communities: a study using C, N, and S stable isotopes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40(4):615-629. 25. van Houte-Howes KSS, Turner SJ, & Pilditch CA (2004) Spatial differences in macroinvertebrate communities in intertidal seagrass habitats and unvegetated sediment in three New Zealand estuaries. Estuaries 27(6):945-957. 26. Schwarz AM (2004) Contribution of photosynthetic gains during tidal emersion to production of Zostera capricomi in a North Island, New Zealand estuary. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38(5):809-818. 27. Reed J, Schwarz A, Gosai A, & Morrsion M (2004) Feasibility study to investigate the replenishment/reinstatement of seagrass beds in Whangarei Harbour – Phase 1. NIWA client report: AKL 2004-33. 28. Berkenbusch K & Rowden AA (2003) Ecosystem engineering – moving away from ‘just-so’ stories. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 27(1):67-73. 29. Heiss WM, Smith AM, & Probert PK (2000) Influence of the smalt intertidal seagrass Zostera novazelandica on linear water flow and sediment texture. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34(4):689-694. 30. Turner SJ, et al. (1999) Seagrass patches and landscapes: the influence of wind-wave dynamics and hierarchical arrangements of structure on macrofaunal seagrass communities. Estuaries 22:1016-1032. 31. Israel SA & Kasabov NK (1997) Statistical, connectionist, and fuzzy inference techniques for image classification. Journal of Electronic Imaging 6(3):337-347. 32. Iwasaki N (1993) Distribution of meiobenthic copepods from various habitats in Pauatahanui Inlet, New Zealand New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27(4):399-405. 33. Hicks BJ & Silvester WB (1990) Acetylene reduction associated with Zostera novazelandica Setch. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel., in Whangateau harbour, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24(4):481-486. 34. Armiger LC (1964) An occurrence of Labyrinthula in New Zealand Zostera. New Zealand Journal of Botany 2:3–9. 35. Durako MJ (2007) Leaf optical properties and photosynthetic leaf absorptances in several Australian seagrasses. Aquatic Botany 87(1):83-89. 36. Macinnis-Ng CMO & Ralph PJ (2003) In situ impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(11):1395-1407. 37. Sanchez-Jerez P, Gillanders BM, & Kingsford MJ (2002) Spatial variation in abundance of prey and diet of trumpeter (Pelates sexlineatus : Teraponidae) associated with Zostera capricorni seagrass meadows. Austral Ecology 27(2):200-210. 38. Macinnis-Ng CMO & Ralph PJ (2002) Towards a more ecologically relevant assessment of the impact of heavy metals on the photosynthesis of the seagrass, Zostera capricorni. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45(1-12):100-106. 39. Macinnis CMO & Ralph PJ (2001) Short-term response and recovery of Zostera capricorni photosynthesis after herbicide exposure. Aquatic Botany 76:1-15. 40. Liu H & Loneragan NR (1997) Size and time of day affect the response of postlarvae and early juvenile grooved tiger prawns Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan (Decapoda:Penaeidae) to natural and artificial seagrass in the laboratory. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 211(2):263-277. 41. Long BG, Dennis DM, Skewes TD, & Poiner IR (1996) Detecting an environmental impact of dredging on seagrass beds with a BACIR sampling design. Aquatic Botany 53(3-4):235-243. 42. Long BG, Skewes TD, & Poiner IR (1994) AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ESTIMATING SEAGRASS BIOMASS. Aquatic Botany 47(3-4):277-291. 43. Long WJL, Mellors JE, & Coles RG (1993) SEAGRASSES BETWEEN CAPE YORK AND HERVEY BAY, QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44(1):19-31. 44. Bell JD & Westoby M (1987) Effects of an epiphytic alga on abundances of fish and decapods associated with the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Australian Journal of Ecology 12(4):333-337. 45. Tyerman SD (1982) WATER RELATIONS OF SEAGRASSES – STATIONARY VOLUMETRIC ELASTIC-MODULUS AND OSMOTIC-PRESSURE OF THE LEAF-CELLS OF HALOPHILA-OVALIS, ZOSTERA-CAPRICORNI, AND POSIDONIA-AUSTRALIS. Plant Physiology 69(4):957-965.